Tuesday, 6 June 2017

METHODS OF CHARACTERIZATION OF ADSORBENTS - A REVIEW I



1.1 Introduction

The study of adsorption of various substances onto adsorbents has been explored by many researchers, ranging from the adsorption of heavy metals, dyes and colourants to other chemicals that are involved in various processes.
Adsorption of materials (adsorbates) from gas or aqueous phase onto solid surface is a classic field of interest to chemists. This arises due to two main reasons. The first is the environmental impact of some of the adsorbates –as such they need to be removed from the environment (effluents) to avoid contamination and intoxication; while the second reason is for isolation.
The solid surfaces on which the adsorption takes place have some characteristics that make them capable of holding the adsorbate. This include their surface area and morphology, pore structure, pore size distribution, pore volume, pH, elemental composition, functional groups, surface charge, crystal structure and, of course, thermal stability.
The possible adsorption capacity of various adsorbents can be predicted by evaluating the above properties. This can be achieved by characterizing the adsorbents using the methods of characterization available. Generally, this work study the methods of characterization of adsorbents which include FTIR, electron microscopic techniques, X-ray techniques, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, BET surface area, Boehm titration and potentiometric titration.
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